Soil contamination, Soil science & soil ecology

Soil contamination is a natural as well as manmade havoc by the release of chemicals which alter the soil environment. Most of the erosion is because of waste disposal, use of chemicals in cultivation and industrial effluents. Mining, Debris, Petro chemicals, Land fill, Underground collisions and other nuclear wastes and many other are widely responsible for soil contamination which deteriorates the environment.

Soil science which particularly acknowledges us the formation of soil its management and its physical and chemical and overall is fertility for proper use of soil.  With the tremendous increase of population and to meet their needs soil management must be considered as a vital aspect.

Soil ecology is a unique study concerned with the cycling of soil stability and its formation. Soil organisms have a key role in maintain the stability of soil & its fertility. To the known earthworms to unknown bacteria make their impact and nourish the soil which is important for the environment

 

Aquaculture & Fisheries

Aquaculture deals with the harvesting of plants, algae, fish and other living organisms in all types of water environments. It is also known as aqua farming. It involves in growth of fauna & flora which grow in aquatic environment and its improvement, multiplication.

 

Earth & Environmental Science

Earth science is the branch of science which deals with the all fields of natural sciences related to the planet earth, environment & physical nature of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of the planet’s physical component, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils.

Environmental science is a multidisciplinary branch that associates biological, physical and information sciences to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental pollution problems.

 

Agriculture & Natural resources

Agriculture is the process of producing food, fiber & many other desired products by the cultivation and farming of certain plants. It deals with the environmentally sustainable techniques such as soil conservation (soil loss from erosion), biodiversity protection and sustainable management of natural resources.

Natural resources are the things that exist freely in nature for anthropological use and don’t necessarily need the action of humankind for their production. Natural resources include sunlight, atmosphere, water, land (includes all minerals) air, wood, oil, wind energy, natural gas, iron, and coal along with all vegetation, crops and animal life.

 

Environmental sustainability

To a level where the requirements on the environment can be met without degrading the amount of sources which make a considerable impact on all the living organisms and to allow the mankind to live and survive.

 

Biodiversity & Ecology

Biodiversity implies to the variety and variance of life on Earth. It is a generally a measure of divergence at the ecosystem level.  The Differentiation between living organisms from all the existence includes terrestrial, marine, inter alia and aquatic ecosystems and their natural complexes set them apart which includes variance with in the species and their ecological habitats.

Ecology is a science which includes the relationship of the living organism towards the environment

 

Global warming & climate change

Global warming is a significant increase in the temperature of the planet attributed by the greenhouse gases emissions and their rise in concentrations in the atmosphere.

Climate change is the change in patterns of the wind, precipitation and over all global rise of temperature acts as a main phenomenon in the climate change, which makes the earth inhabitable in the near future as the global warming is interlinked to climate change

 

Recycling & Green Chemistry

The amount of waste disposed can be luckily converted into useful products and new objects. Recycling is a great way to handle the waste which lowers the usage of raw materials in manufacturing the new products as recycling implies to the used products. There by it plots a steep curve in the usage of fresh materials obtained from the nature.
In Green Chemistry there are a set of guidelines and principles which are important in designing of new molecules or products which are as follows

  • Use of nontoxic reagents
  • Minimizing of hazardous wastes and avoiding of auxiliary substances whenever it is possible
  • Use of catalysts in place of reagents etc.

The ultimate goal of green chemistry is to reduce the use of non-safer products which is beneficial for the life on the earth.

 

Environmental Engineering

It is a strategic application which combines the use of both engineering along with science in preserving the natural environment (air, water, land) for human habitation and other living organisms and also to rectify the affected sites from different types of pollution. It involves the proper management of resources and protection from the radioactive wastes, toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes.

 

Aquatic environment & Oceanography

It’s an ecosystem in a body of water. Different communities of organisms which totally rely on each other and on their environment in the aquatic environment
Life on aquatic is of two type

  • Marine (Includes brown algae, dinoflagellates, corals, cephalopods, echinoderms, and sharks.  
  • Freshwater (Lentic, Lotic, Wetlands)

Oceanography is a science which includes the study of different aspects of nature and formation of ocean basins, and movement of water in the basins. It includes many aspects like marine life their environment and formation of currents, waves, geophysical fluid dynamics, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor and its properties with in and around the boundaries

 

Environmental Geology & Geophysics

The geological information of the earth helps in the forecasting of natural hazards (volcano eruptions, earth quakes, landslides) with which the life can be preserved. The applied geology gives us the information about the earth rocks their potentiality and to determine how they exist and their effect on mankind. It helps in evaluating the local, regional and global change, on and below the surface of earth.

Geophysics deals with the physical process and properties of the earth and it surrounding environment by using quantitative methods for their analysis refers only to the geological applications. It refers with the gravitational force and magnetic field of the earth and its internal structure and dynamics and solar terrestrial relationship and comparable problems associated with the planets. 

 

Water Security & Water sustainability

Quality amount of water which is required for the population to endure a good livelihood and to fortify protection against water pollution and deadly diseases associated with it and look after the ecosystem and its preservance.
Water sustainability includes four important elements

  • Water quality
  • Water quantity
  • Usage and efficiency
  • Water nexus

It mostly focuses on the water consumption without letting go off present and future requirements

 

Greenhouse gases & Acid rain

These gases are abundant in the atmosphere which absorb and emit the infrared radiation. Due to the industrial revolution and some other factors contributed majorly in the rise of concentrations of these gases which leads to the global warming. Gases include Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, CFCS, HCFCS etc. These concentrations should be in balance and determined by airborne fraction

Acid rain is due to the burning of fossil fuels and coal which emit gases into the atmosphere mostly Sulphur and nitrogen oxide and later on it fuses with the atmospheric gases and forms a precipitate which is acid rain. This provoke the risk to the forests, lakes and other ecosystems which results in environmental harm

 

Atmospheric science & Meteorology

Atmospheric science is the study which relatively uses physical and chemistry fields which results in knowing the earth internal structure its atmosphere and its dynamics. Use of vector analysis and differential calculations are vital tools used in this arena to get a proper understanding about the earth atmosphere and its effects on other and its own systems which is related to wide range of aspects.

Meteorology is the branch which is associated with the earth atmosphere in predicting the weather conditions and uses scientific principles by understanding how atmosphere effects the life on earth.

 

Hydrology: Surface Hydrology/Surface Water

Surface water hydrology is the phenomenon which is used to know the movement of surface water its distribution in space and time which is largely dependent upon the climate conditions along with the land usage, soil fertility, and terrain. Hydrological variability is the key component which had an impact on the river basins.

 

Biomass, Bio-energy, & Bio-fuels

Biomass refers to the use of raw materials which is obtained from the plants or animals for different commercial uses like heat production, industrial usage for the manufacturing of finished products and sustainable energy and thermal process. As most of the biomass is organic material which traps some amount of sunlight and that can be used as renewable energy.

Bioenergy is the natural energy which is obtained from the biological sources and organisms. Many of the natural waste is potential of chemical energy which is acquired by photosynthesis which is transformable to renewable source. It is an alternative and most efficient way for the energy production instead of depleting the earth core for relying on the fossil fuels which leads to environmental hazardous.

Bio fuels are developed on the modern techniques which depends upon biological process. Agricultural and organic matter is processed by the anaerobic digestion. Examples include methane from organic matter, bio diesel from the animal fats and green diesel from algae which over all reduces the increase in the emissions of greenhouse gases.

 

Toxicology & Environmental Health

Environmental toxicology is a branch of science which acknowledges us about the harmful toxicants which are contemporarily used in different arenas which makes the different species growth questionable and near to endangered. Many ecosystems are spoiled due to the amount of waste the mankind is generating. Organic and inorganic pollutants, pesticides, biological agents are the sources for the environmental toxicity.

 

Agrobiodiversity & Agroecology

Agrobiodiversity is the sector where the most of the people rely in terms of food, livelihood. Many of the recent advances decrease the burden of food and agricultural sectors which are lacking from ages. It is interlinked between the environment with the variance types of plants, animals, and other tiny organisms which are important for the agro system to be flourished

Agro ecology is the practice to enhance the productivity in farming which keeps the soil fertile and stable. This can be happened with the usage of traditional methods rather than dumping chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Due to the use of organic way the yield will increase tremendously which balances both the profit and health. Use of natural ways rather than artificial makes the soil to retain its stability and in turn it is beneficiary to environment

 

Environmental Pollution & Management

Many factors contribute to the deteriorating of environment. Pollution is a global problem. Smoke from vehicles to industrial wastes, from plastic to health hazard chemicals, debris, every manmade factor which is useful to man is turning out to be poison inhaled by our atmosphere and gives us return into global warming and rise in concentrations of harmful gases. This could be as simple as that stop using the products which rely on fossil fuels instead change the track to renewable sources. Limit the toxicants from the industries, plastic consumption, knowledge on debris recycling could make an impact 

 

Coastal zones & Ocean Science

These zones acts as a bridge between the terrain and sea. This zones have a unique habitats respected to the species in the ecosystem. These zone are economically beneficial and provide a greater tourism experience this could be achieved in a healthy way. Due to the debris and contaminating the resources   the spark is gone and coastal zone species and its ecosystems are being placed under risk.

Oceanography is a science which includes the study of different aspects of nature and form ocean basins, and movement of water in the basins. It includes many aspects like marine life their environment and formation of currents, waves, geophysical fluid dynamics, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor and its properties with in and around the boundaries

 

Environmental Economics and Natural Resource Management

Environmental Economics undertakes theoretical or empirical studies of the economic effects of national or local environmental policies around the world Particular issues include the costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies to deal with air pollution, water quality, toxic substances, solid waste, and global warming. The need for the environmental resource management can be established with the human and human interaction and relationship with the nature by sustainable use of nature resources which in turn the ecosystem, land integrity and over all environment are driven in a peaceful way for the future mankind.

 

Wildlife ecology & Management

Wildlife ecology tells us variance in between the wildlife species habitat and their ecosystem. The wild life species are of types includes primary, secondary and territory consumers among them.  Due to the certain climatic and atmospheric conditions the species are endangered and survival is inflexible for the other because they are interlinked.

Humans are the pioneers in inventions and discoveries but lacking in the preservation of wild life survival. In terms of exploiting the forestry, habitat, commercialization of animals their use in different fields. Care and preservance and a helping hand is crucial for the wildlife to see them forward in future generations

 

Forestry & Deforestation

Due to the huge mankind and their habitats the people are in now where to get their needs, which made the world to look upon the forestry exploited expanded and initiated the excessive logging, unsustainable farming which made the soil unfertile. This triggered situation could be stopped by preservance in forestry from the mankind and along with the natural disasters.

There is no difference between slaughtering of animals and clearing the forests. Deforestation mainly disrupts the habitat of wildlife their ecosystem and also causes aridity. The remedy lies within the human is the proper reforestation and letting the forest to give its charm and providing proper support in terms of manmade or natural disasters.

 

GIS, Remote Sensing & Geo-spatial Sciences

Geographic information system is the best approach to know, store, rectify, analyze the geographical data of a planet. The use of location intelligence along with geographical information system helps in location based amenities which generally based on survival lance and visualization

Remote sensing is an asset for procuring the sensible information regarding the earth surveillance which includes the geographical information, visualization of land, oceanography, glaciology and other fields which helps in monitoring and act according to it.

Geospatial Science is an area which analysis the spatial information of the earth integrity and over all geographical information. Most of the tools used in this branch includes the global positioning systems and global informational systems.

 

Geography, Natural Disasters & Geo-diversity

Geo diversity refers to the array of earth materials which have variations among its constituents and shape. This form of materials includes the rocks, fossil fuels, water, minerals which possess active geological & morphological process.

Natural disasters are familiar to life on earth its consequences results in the greater damage in terms of life, environmental and financial. Mostly occurring events are earth quakes, tsunamis, floods, hurricanes, volcano eruptions.

Geography is an earth science which tells us about the distribution of land its physical properties   atmospheric conditions, landscape, ecology, oceanography every aspect related in the biodiversity it also implies to the relationship between the environment and its people which change over time.

 

Ecological sustainability & Ecosystems

Ecosystem acts like motherhood to the species to continue their life its services include biological diversity, food. Threats to the ecosystem rises when these ecosystems exposed to the manmade nuisance like pollution, climate and environmental changes makes the ecosystem weaker and no longer bears the pressure which tears apart the biodiversity. This could be stopped by conserving the ecosystem and reducing the man’s burden on it

 

Biogeochemistry

Biogeochemistry is the study of the earth environment by having the knowledge of the atmosphere, lithosphere, cryosphere, pedosphere etc. The natural environment composition of all chemical elements which are formed biologically & their influence on the atmosphere can be known.

 

Marine/Ocean Ecology & Marine Resource Management

The Marine ecology deals with the marine life habitat, various organisms and their interaction in between them and their surrounding factors which are needed for the survival and able to sustain for the near future. The ecological crisis is quite disturbing for the marine life for survival, birth. Preventive measures and new way approaches should be considered and implemented in preventing the marine life from the intrusions of man and other factors.

This can be achieved with the regulation of unlimited fisheries, land based pollution and industrial effluents which are entering into the sea, Shore based and ship borne pollution, drilling and rig operations. It should also promote the projects which supply green electricity by investing in the wind power plant, and researching on marine biotechnology.

 

Traditional Ecological Knowledge/Indigenous Knowledge

The traditional knowledge regarding the surrounding environment, habitat, resources which are derived from ancient times is still rooted in the minds of indigenous. These knowledge helps in sustaining the ecology by the finite usage of resources, implementing changes which are needed to fight back the climate change and havoc conditions. Ecology is needed not only for humans, so let live the other life which helps in the upliftment of ecology.

 

Physics of Oceans and Atmospheres

It is the study of the sea floor, sea surface, coast and their role in the earth climate system. Ocean physical processes span a wide range of space and time scales, from turbulence at scales of millimeters and seconds to global circulations at scales of thousands of kilometers and centuries or longer. The atmospheric sciences help in analyzing the changes in the climate and weather which is needed for the forestry and agriculture.

 

Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation

 

 

Bioremediation & Biodegradation

Bioremediation helps in treating adulterated media with the use of bioremediation process which generally implies to the raise of microorganisms and totally lower the certain pollutants which is very good and economical approach for treating the contaminated media this includes oxidation reduction reactions used for a wide variety of fields. 

Biodegradation is the usual lysis of the organic matter by the bacteria and fungi. This totally had three approaches bio fragmentation, bio deterioration, and 

Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry

The geological information of the earth helps in the forecasting of natural hazards (volcano eruptions, earth quakes, landslides) with which the life can be preserved. The applied geology gives us the information about the earth rocks their potentiality and to determine how they exist and their effect on mankind. It helps in evaluating the local, regional and global change, on and below the surface of earth.

Geophysics deals with the physical process and properties of the earth and it surrounding environment by using quantitative methods for their analysis refers only to the geological applications. It refers with the gravitational force and magnetic field of the earth and its internal structure and dynamics and solar terrestrial relationship and comparable problems associated with the planets.

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans

Marine & Coastal biodiversity

Marine biodiversity is an aggregation of highly inter-connected ecosystem components or features, encompassing all levels of biological organization from genes, species, populations to ecosystems, with the diversity of each level having structural and functional attributes

Coastal environments contain diverse habitats that support an abundance of marine life. Some examples of marine and coastal habitats include mangrove forests; coral reefs; sea grass beds; estuaries in coastal areas; hydrothermal vents; and seamounts and soft sediments on the ocean floor a few kilometres below the surface

Petrology, volcano-logy & mineralogy

Petrology is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form. Petrology has three subdivisions: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary petrology

Volcanology is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The term volcanology is derived from the Latin word vulcan. Vulcan was the ancient Roman god of fire

Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts

Marine Pollution

One of the biggest threats for the marine pollution is man-made pollution. Waste products like plastics and other residential waste is destroying the ocean, discharge of pesticides and industrial chemicals eventually comes into the sea with devastating consequences for marine life and the habitats they depend on. Shipping accidents and oil spills add additional toxins to the mix. It is estimated that a staggering 80 per cent of marine pollution originates on land. Land-based pollutants – such as agricultural run-off and nutrients from sewage outflows - are contributing to ocean ‘dead zones’ – areas which can no longer sustain life because they have low or zero oxygen